Complete Information About Batteries

A battery is a situs slot online device that is capable of delivering electric power to a device. The development of technology in modern times has made scientists find a tool to conduct electricity without needing to be connected to an outlet. Maybe nowadays it’s very easy to find batteries, but it’s a different story when we go back to the 1900s.

Batteries were first discovered in the 18th century, by someone from Italy. His discovery is very meritorious for all of us. Try to imagine if there is no battery, of course there is no such thing as a smartphone or other sophisticated device that uses a battery. Who is the real inventor of the battery? Let’s discuss together in the next paragraph.

The History of Batteries Invented

The battery was first discovered in the 17th century by Conte Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastio Volta, also known as Alessandro Volta. Alessandro was born on February 18, 1745 in Como, Lombardy, Italy. Before discovering the battery, Alessandro was already a well-known physicist in his country. In fact, he was already a professor of physics at the Royal School at the age of 30. Alessandro is very interested in the world of physics, especially in the world of electricity. He has a goal – that is to create a device that can generate static electricity to use an object.

Initially, Alessandro discovered and isolated methane gas in 1776, and because of his discovery, Alessandro was appointed chair professor of physics at the University of Pavia. Five years later Alessandro’s friend named Galvani said that when two metal contacts were of different strength, they would produce an electric current. This is interpreted on the discovery in real life as “Animal Electricity”.

One year later, in 1792, Alessandro began to experiment with using metal alone without the help of animals, and it turned out that the metal could produce an electric current. This sparked controversy at that time among scientists who believed metals and animals to trigger electric currents. Eight years later, Alessandro finally succeeded in giving a demonstration of a battery consisting of copper and tin separated by paper or cloth dipped in water. Since the demonstration the battery has grown to the present day. As we know, nowadays, batteries are widely used and even have various types of batteries.

Common Battery Types Today

Batteries have several types that are distinguished by size and function. Some even call primary batteries or batteries that are only used once. One-time use means that the battery has a period of time to drain electricity and is only temporary. Well, here are various types of batteries that are distinguished by size:

  • AAA

AAA batteries or often referred to as A3 are batteries that have a tube-like shape and are slim or small. Usually these batteries are used for some remotes such as TV and AC remotes.

  • AA

There are also AA batteries or often referred to as A2 batteries. This battery is often used for various types of children’s toys as well as several devices such as wall clocks, flashlights or computer devices such as wireless mice or wireless keyboards.

  • C

Batteries C stone has the shape of a tube with a large size, with an estimated diameter of one inch. These batteries are commonly used for flashlights.

  • D

The D battery has the same function as the C battery but has a different shape. The shape of the D battery is a large tube and is commonly used for Remote control, or some radios.

  • 9V

Finally, there is a 9V battery with a box-like shape. These batteries are commonly used for sound systems such as guitar amps or remote control types.

So, there are several types of batteries on the market. Curious what batteries are made of? Actually, each brand of battery has different basic ingredients, here are the explanations.

Various Types of Battery Materials

The materials used in batteries in general are clearly different. You need to know that there are two types of batteries, namely single-use batteries and rechargeable batteries.
Okay, first we will discuss disposable batteries, which are as follows:

Zinc-Carbon Battery

Batteries which are often referred to as Heavy Duty batteries are the most economical types of batteries. However, the battery life is not that good. The negative side of this battery is made of zinc and the positive side of the battery is made of carbon so it is called a Zinc (zinc) Carbon battery.

Alkaline Battery

By using the electrolyte Potassium hydroxide, making this battery life much longer and in terms of price of course more expensive when compared to zinc carbon batteries. But for those of you who want to use disposable batteries with a long duration, then alkaline batteries are the right choice.

Lithium Battery

Among other disposable batteries, lithium batteries are the most powerful batteries in life. This battery can last up to 10 years. With a long service life, this battery is often used for watches and computer backup memory. These batteries are also often referred to as button batteries or coin batteries.

Silver Oxide Battery

This type of battery is made of silver, so the price of this battery is quite high. This battery is the same as a lithium battery which is used for watches but is more durable and has a relatively expensive price due to the basic ingredients.

Zinc Air Cell Battery

Zinc Air Cell battery is a battery that is often used for hearing aids. This battery is very durable and only has an anode. The cathode in this battery utilizes ambient air.

Furthermore, there are several types of rechargeable batteries, namely:

Alkaline Rechargeable Battery

Alkaline Rechargeable Batteries are rechargeable batteries that can be used many times. However, the amount of recharging the battery from this battery can only be filled 25 times. The advantage of this battery is that the price is much more affordable compared to other types of rechargeable batteries.

Ni-Cd (Nickel-Cadmium) Battery

The next rechargeable battery is a battery that has materials from nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium electrolytes. With these materials, this capacity and battery has a strong enough endurance to be used in the long term. But the drawback of this type of battery is that the more often the battery is recharged, the faster it runs out and the electricity stored in the battery runs out faster. In addition, this battery contains toxins that are dangerous when inhaled by humans. This is proven by the prohibition of throwing this battery waste in any place.

Ni-Mh Battery (Nickel-Metal Hydride)

This type of battery has a larger capacity when compared to Ni-Cd batteries. However, the reduction in electricity flow when finished charging is also greater than that of Ni-Cd. This type of battery is widely used for camera and radio communication batteries.

Li-Ion (Lithium-Ion) Battery

Currently, Li-ion type batteries are most widely used for various items such as vapes (electronic cigarettes), smartphones, and various other types of electronic goods. This is because this battery has a stronger endurance than other types of batteries. The decrease in electric current when not in use is also smaller than other batteries.
That’s some information that we can share with you. Hopefully useful and can help those of you who are looking for information about the type of battery. See you again.




Whether you want to prevent thermal runaway or increase battery life, we understand that different projects may have the need for optimized solutions that are reliable, can be delivered on schedule and meet stringent budget demands. We are here to help.

Founded in 1990, Outlast’s products were originally developed for NASA to be used in an array of textiles applications for astronauts. With the success of that business and our continual desire to grow and enhance our technology, our advanced division in Latent Heat Systems (LHS) was formed.

Re-engineered, our Latent Heat Systems now provide passive energy absorption, thermal mitigation, homogeneity, and safety. These materials provide thermal protection to batteries, and electronic devices, along with temperature stabilization of thermosensitive components and surfaces. LHS Materials are available in a variety of forms including composites, encapsulants, and coatings. These materials can be optimized into sheets and geometric forms to fit your needs.


What is Thermal Runaway?

Thermal runaway is a phenomenon when the battery enters a self-fed cycle of heating and degradation. This results in a catastrophic release of energy—usually accompanied by gas venting, sparks, and fire. In recent years, there have been a few high-profile cases of this happening with popular consumer goods, airplanes, and even electric vehicles.

A thermal runaway event is caused by a failure in an individual cell that reacts and begins breaking down the internal battery structures. This causes a thermal chain-reaction, creating a self-propagating cycle of rapid heating and deterioration.

A few examples of causes for failure are:

  • Exposure to excessive temperatures
  • Short-circuiting
  • Surges in both charging and discharging current
  • Hotspots in large packs
  • Improper electrical connections
  • Poor fail-safe software
  • Mechanical destruction, penetration, or impact

LHS Materials are helping manufacturers develop next-generation electric and hybrid vehicles by implementing the active thermal regulation in a fire-retardant matrix to overcome some of the safety and performance limitations of lithium-ion battery packs. Carefully regulating the heat fluctuations in battery packs increases the lifespan of the battery and thermal runaway prevention.

LHS Materials are engineered to be integrated thermal regulators. The matrixes are custom-designed blocks that integrate into the fire-retardant battery housing unit.

How Can We Prevent Thermal Runaway?

Thermal runaway prevention is a hot topic and the unique material properties of the LHS® battery matrixes reduce the likelihood of a thermal runaway event by regulating the individual cell temperatures. However, if a cell were to enter thermal runaway, the battery matrix isolates the incident and prevents any cascading effect.

LHS Materials actively cool the battery cell mechanically by “melting” the latent heat organics to absorb heat. However, this cooling effect is limited by the heat saturation levels of the organics: meaning the responsiveness of the electrical system in cutting off the electrical flow is vital. While both systems can consistently and effectively prevent thermal runaway, combining the two systems allows for a dynamic and actively responsive cooling system. Read more about how LHS Materials can improve performance and safety.

Lithium-Ion Energy Storage

Li-Ion batteries have a well-rounded balance of cost, weight, and capacity. This has led to their widespread adoption in high-tech and lightweight applications. Their success over other rechargeable batteries, in nearly every consumer goods market, has led to a renewed expectation of better battery performance: faster charging and discharging while lasting longer. Along with raised expectations, the rapid growth of Li-Ion technology has opened new visions for what can be made possible through having more efficient energy storage—one of which is the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

Global electric vehicle sales have grown at a 32% compound annual growth rate over the last 4 years1. While the total market for EVs is still a small percentage of the overall vehicle sales, Bernenberg Bank predicted that EV sales will gain a solid foothold by eventually breaking 5% of total sales by 20202. This rapid growth does not include a large number of commercial fleet vehicles adopting hybrid and EV technology, for example, UPS’s adoption of hybrid technology into some of its fleet3, Telsa’s commercial electric semi-truck4, and Workhorse Group’s electric fleet pickup.

This adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles relies heavily on the progress of rechargeable technology—demanding longer vehicle range, better performance, and lower costs. Lithium-ion batteries are particularly suited for this type of application with properties including:

  • Highest energy density of any mass-produced battery
  • Low maintenance requirements
  • High degree of design flexibility
  • Relatively negligible memory effect
  • Low self-discharge rate
  • Nearly 3x the voltage capacity of the next level batteries at 3.6 V5

While Li-Ion batteries are the leading edge in rechargeable technology, the increased demands from electric vehicles have pushed the industry to increase energy density, charge/discharge capacity, and storage efficiency in these batteries. Unfortunately, as seen in the consumer goods market, these pressures have accentuated some of performance and safety limitations with Li-Ion batteries—particularly with the battery packs used in EVs. These packs have three main areas of both performance and safety limitations: regular use degradation, overheating and packing inconsistencies.

Regular Use Degradation

During thermal cycling, the charging or discharging causes internal resistance and thermal expansion which causes stress on the materials in the batteries, shortening their useful life. This puts a small amount of strain on the mechanical and material systems in the battery—which is relieved when the battery cools down to its original state. However, this cycle generates a cumulative effect of degrading the materials and putting expansion and contraction strain on mechanical system of the battery.

Pouch cells are particularly susceptible to this type of stress, whereas cylindrical cells tend to mitigate this type of life-shortening. Additionally, this thermal cycling accelerates material degradation. When the materials no longer perform with optimal materials, there is a significant loss of recoverable power and capacity.

Do All Li-Ion Batteries Explode the Same?

Do all Li-ion batteries explode the same?  The short answer is no, not all cells burn or react the same when undergoing a catastrophic thermal runaway event.  Some Li-ion chemistries and cells are more energetic, and some are more stable and “safer”.

Not a week goes by without a news story describing a Li-ion cell starting on fire and creating a hazardous event.  These include the famous Samsung Note 7 battery issues, the hoverboards that start house fires during recharge, and personal devices such as headphones, fitness trackers, e-cigarettes that cause skin burns and injuries when their batteries catch fire.  For instance, between March 1991 and May 22, 2017, the FAA documented 160 incidents at airports and in airplanes of devices smoking and catching on fire. Twenty-two (22) of these incidents alone were between Jan-May 22 of this year and this tally “should not be considered as a complete listing,” the agency says.[1]

How batteries react and burn to develop into a catastrophic thermal runaway event is dependent on a number of variables such as how the cell is damaged, the Li-ion chemistry, cell capacity, cell state of charge (SOC), quality of cell manufacturing, and the external protections put into place around the cell or in the battery pack.

All thermal runaway events are a result of a rise in cell temperature from multiple causes:

  • The use of cells in high-temperature environment
  • A defect inside the cell can result in an internal short circuit
  • A surge in the charging or discharging current
  • An improper electrical connection at the tab of a battery.
  • Mechanical damage

For instance, mechanical damage and penetration of the cell will normally create a more energetic and explosive thermal event, as compared to a short circuit or cell overheating which may only cause the cell to vent or bulge.

As an example shown in the video below, a nail penetration test conducted by Outlast Technologies of 18650 cells from the same production lot at the same 100% SOC.  As can be seen, not all cells explode the same.

 SOC also has a significant effect on cell energetics and is why it’s important to control cell charging and prevent overcharging.  Shown below in Table 1 and Figure 1 are the nail penetration results of cells at various SOC.

Table 1 reports the maximum temperatures and heat of reaction obtained from Sony US18650GR cells at different SOC.[2]

Fig. 1, displays the different degradation results of a given lot of batteries when tested at different SOC.  It is clearly seen that higher SOC yield more energetic thermal events.[3]

Various manufacturers create electrochemical cells based on different chemistries and different cell sizes and shapes.  Some chemistry provides higher energy capacity and some provide longer cell life, thermal stability and safety.  For example, Table 2 lists some common cell chemistries and their attributes.

Graph 1, shows the different energies and capacities of various chemistries.  Generally, the higher the chemistry capacity and energy, the lower the thermal stability and safety[4].

 Also, these different cell chemistries and cell sizes provide different thermal energy events due to the various stored energy, their energy density, internal chemistry reaction rates, thermal degradation mechanisms and thermal degradation rates.  For example, Table 3 below are various energy ranges of some of the different chemistries.

These results are also corroborated by nail penetration testing at Outlast Technologies of various cell sizes, capacities, and chemistries.  Graph 2 outlines the thermal curves and max temperatures of different cell sizes and chemistries.

Safety and Thermal Runaway Prevention

As described, not all systems and packs are designed the same and one measure of safety that can be employed is the use of LHS® materials.  LHS® battery matrixes are engineered to be integrated thermal regulators. The matrixes are custom-designed with unique material properties to reduce the likelihood of a thermal runaway event by regulating the individual cell temperatures. However, if a cell were to enter thermal runaway, the battery matrix isolates the incident and prevents any cascading effect.

LHS® matrixes actively cool the battery cell thermo mechanically by absorbing the reaction heat into the shape stable latent heat containing poly-organics. Therefore, it is important to understand all of the variables that go into pack design which also affect the customization of the LHS materials.  This allows the Outlast Technologies technical team to design or recommend the most effective solution for your particular requirements.


[2] Experimental Analysis of Thermal Runaway in 18650 Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells Using an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter, Lei, et. al, Batteries June 2017, vol. 3, issue 2, 14.

[3] The Relationship of the Nail Penetration Test to Safety of Li-ion Cells, TIAX LLC presentation at 2013 DOE Annual Merit Review Meeting.